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Hijos de padres adictos de 3-4 generación

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iMaginez une méthode innovante pour apprendre les mathématiques

Singapore Ed lines

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A chaque évaluation internationale des systèmes éducatifs, Singapour est en tête des classements, c’est le cas avec PISA (Programme for Internation Student Assessment) ; et plus particulièrement en ce qui concerne les mathématiques avec le TIMMS (Trends in International Mathematics and Sciences Studies), au point de nommer celle-ci la « méthode singapourienne ». Cette méthode émerge dans les années 1980 quand le gouvernement a décidé de faire de cette discipline une priorité pour une raison fidèle à ses principes pragmatiques : il y avait besoin d’ingénieurs pour développer la ville et donc des mathématiciens. La façon de créer la méthode d’apprentissage des mathématiques a été élaborée comme toute chose à Singapour : s’inspirer de ce qui se fait à l’extérieur, prendre le meilleur et l’adapter aux problématiques locales. Ainsi pendant quinze années la méthode d’apprentissage singapourienne des mathématiques a été testée, améliorée, éprouvée pour obtenir celle qui est enseignée dans les classes aujourd’hui. Et des derniers rangs des classements Singapour s’est retrouvé en première ligne.

La méthode est inspirée du psychologue américain Bruner qui consiste à faire passer du concret à l’abstrait, d’une représentation physique à une image mentale, d’où le nom « concrète, imagée et abstraite ». La méthode consiste tout d’abord à faire manipuler concrètement des objets aux enfants, des cubes par exemple pour qu’ils puissent les dénombrer (combien de cubes sur la table, combien dessous, etc.). Ces objets sont ensuite dessinés au tableau, 2 cubes dessus par exemple et 3 en dessous (on sort du concret en gardant les mêmes références). Ensuite on additionne les chiffres. De fait cette méthode est bien plus concrète, parlante pour un jeune élève que s’il doit spontanément additionner 2+3 et même s’il doit additionner 2 pommes d’un côté et 2 pommes de l’autre. Le passage initial de la manipulation est déterminant. S’il ne fait aucun doute que cette méthode prend plus de temps, elle permet d’être parfaitement ancrée dans l’esprit de l’enfant.

Il est intéressant de voir que ce sont les valeurs de Singapour qui transpirent à travers la méthode mathématique développée dans l’ile-état. C’est le pragmatisme, la capacité d’adaptation, l’excellence et le travail acharné qui a permis de réussir la création d’une méthode de mathématique qui désormais inspire le monde entier. Que ce soit aux Etats-Unis, en Israël, au Chili, aux Pays-Bas, au Brésil, en Afrique du Sud ou au Royaume-Unis, cette méthode est désormais enseignée.

Si l’articulation théorie et pratique, concept et mise en œuvre est quelque chose de courant dans l’apprentissage à travers le monde, l’inverse est moins d’usage et tirer de la pratique des enseignements plus abstraits est quelque chose de plus complexe mais non moins efficace.

Rappelons pourtant que les plus grandes découvertes, notamment en mathématiques s’appuie sur la pratique. A titre d’exemple l’article certainement le plus célèbre d’Albert Einstein “De l’électrodynamique des corps en mouvement”, ce texte qui établit la théorie de la relativité, est fondé sur une illustration et une représentation on ne peut plus concrète, celle d’un train qui arrive à 7 heures et cela signifie nous dit Einstein « que la petite aiguille de ma montre qui pointe exactement le 7 et que l’arrivée du train sont des évènements simultanés ». Peut-on faire plus simple pour expliquer le temps ?

 

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Un niño de 5 años puede aprender cálculo…

5-Year-Olds Can Learn Calculus

Why playing with algebraic and calculus concepts—rather than doing arithmetic drills—may be a better way to introduce children to math

 

The familiar, hierarchical sequence of math instruction starts with counting, followed by addition and subtraction, then multiplication and division. The computational set expands to include bigger and bigger numbers, and at some point, fractions enter the picture, too. Then in early adolescence, students are introduced to patterns of numbers and letters, in the entirely new subject of algebra. A minority of students then wend their way through geometry, trigonometry and, finally, calculus, which is considered the pinnacle of high-school-level math.

But this progression actually “has nothing to do with how people think, how children grow and learn, or how mathematics is built,” says pioneering math educator and curriculum designer Maria Droujkova. She echoes a number of voices from around the world that want to revolutionize the way math is taught, bringing it more in line with these principles.

  
The current sequence is merely an entrenched historical accident that strips much of the fun out of what she describes as the “playful universe” of mathematics, with its more than 60 top-level disciplines, and its manifestations in everything from weaving to building, nature, music and art. Worse, the standard curriculum starts with arithmetic, which Droujkova says is much harder for young children than playful activities based on supposedly more advanced fields of mathematics.

“Calculations kids are forced to do are often so developmentally inappropriate, the experience amounts to torture,” she says. They also miss the essential point—that mathematics is fundamentally about patterns and structures, rather than “little manipulations of numbers,” as she puts it. It’s akin to budding filmmakers learning first about costumes, lighting and other technical aspects, rather than about crafting meaningful stories.

This turns many children off to math from an early age. It also prevents many others from learning math as efficiently or deeply as they might otherwise. Droujkova and her colleagues have noticed that most of the adults they meet have “math grief stories,” as she describes them. They recall how a single course—or even a single topic, such as fractions—derailed them from the sequential track. She herself has watched more than a few grown-ups “burst out crying during interviews, reliving the anxieties and lost hopes of their young selves.”

Droujkova, who earned her PhD in math education in the United States after immigrating here from Ukraine, advocates a more holistic approach she calls “natural math,” which she teaches to children as young as toddlers, and their parents. This approach, covered in the book she co-authored with Yelena McManaman, “Moebius Noodles: Adventurous math for the playground crowd,” hinges on harnessing students’ powerful and surprisingly productive instincts for playful exploration to guide them on a personal journey through the subject. Says Droujkova: “Studies [e.g.,  this one, and many others referenced in this symposium] have shown that games or free play are efficient ways for children to learn, and they enjoy them. They also lead the way into the more structured and even more creative work of noticing, remixing and building mathematical patterns.”

Finding an appropriate path hinges on appreciating an often-overlooked fact—that “the complexity of the idea and the difficulty of doing it are separate, independent dimensions,” she says. “Unfortunately a lot of what little children are offered is simple but hard—primitive ideas that are hard for humans to implement,” because they readily tax the limits of working memory, attention, precision and other cognitive functions. Examples of activities that fall into the “simple but hard” quadrant: Building a trench with a spoon (a military punishment that involves many small, repetitive tasks, akin to doing 100 two-digit addition problems on a typical worksheet, as Droujkova points out), or memorizing multiplication tables as individual facts rather than patterns.

Far better, she says, to start by creating rich and social mathematical experiences that are complex (allowing them to be taken in many different directions) yet easy (making them conducive to immediate play). Activities that fall into this quadrant: building a house with LEGO blocks, doing origami or snowflake cut-outs, or using a pretend “function box” that transforms objects (and can also be used in combination with a second machine to compose functions, or backwards to invert a function, and so on).

“You can take any branch of mathematics and find things that are both complex and easy in it,” Droujkova says. “My quest, with several colleagues around the world, is to take the treasure of mathematics and find the accessible ways into all of it.”

She started with algebra and calculus, because they’re “pattern-drafter tools, designer tools, maker tools—they support cool free play.” So “Moebius Noodles” includes activities such as making fractals (to foster an appreciation of the ideas of recursion and infinitesimals) and “mirror books” (mirrors that are taped to each other like the covers of a book and can be angled in different ways around an object to introduce the concepts of infinity and transformations). (Another book in this genre is “Calculus by and for Young People,” by Don Cohen.)

“It’s not the subject of calculus as formally taught in college,” Droujkova notes. “But before we get there, we want to have hands-on, grounded, metaphoric play. At the free play level, you are learning in a very fundamental way—you really own your concept, mentally, physically, emotionally, culturally.” This approach “gives you deep roots, so the canopy of the high abstraction does not wither. What is learned without play is qualitatively different. It helps with test taking and mundane exercises, but it does nothing for logical thinking and problem solving. These things are separate, and you can’t get here from there.”

She doesn’t expect children to be able to solve formal equations at age five, but that’s okay. “There are levels of understanding,” she says. “You don’t want to shackle people into a formal understanding too early.” After the informal level comes the level where students discuss ideas and notice patterns. Then comes the formal level, where students can use abstract words, graphs, and formulas. But ideally, a playful aspect is retained along the entire journey. “This is what mathematicians do—they play with abstract ideas, but they still play.”

Droujkova notes that natural math—whose slogan is “make math your own, to make your own math”—is essentially a “freedom movement.” She explains: “We work toward freedom at many levels—the free play of little kids, the agency of families and local groups in organizing math activities, the autonomy of artists and makers, and even liberty for us curriculum designers. … No single piece of mathematics is right for everyone. People are different, and people need to approach mathematics differently.”

For example, in a group learning about the properties of rhombuses, an artistically inclined person might prefer to draw a rhombus, a programmer might code one, a philosopher might discuss the essence of rhombi, and an origami master might fold a paper rhombus.

Nor does everyone need to learn any particular piece of mathematics, aside from what’s essential to function in his or her culture. Many people live to a ripe and happy old age without knowing calculus, for example. “At the same time, the world would be better off     with a higher literacy for mathematics, and humanity as a whole needs advanced math to make it through the next 100 years, because there are pretty complex problems we’re facing.”

Children need to be exposed to a variety of math styles to find the one that suits them best. But they also need to see meaningful (to them) people doing meaningful things with math and enjoying the experience. Math circles, where people help one another, are growing fast and are one way to achieve this. Math know-how (activities and examples) “must come with communities of practice that help newbies make sense of it,” Droujkova says. “One does not work without the other.”

Regardless, if learning is to be as efficient and deep as possible, it’s essential that it be done freely. That means giving children a voice in which activities to participate, for how long, and also the level of mastery they want to achieve. (“This is the biggest clash with traditional curriculum development,” Droujkova notes.)

Adults must be prepared for those times when a child would rather be doing something other than the planned activity. Says Droujkova: “The role of adults is to inspire, by saying things like, ‘Ooh, what a complex shape—have you noticed the curve is made out of straight lines?’ Provide math connections with whatever kids are doing. This is hard to do—it requires both pedagogical and math concept knowledge, but it can be learned. And everyone can easily give general support: ‘How very interesting, I will investigate more.’ You can then look online, or ask on a math circle forum, to find out what it means mathematically.”

It’s also helpful to have a variety of interesting materials on hand and to be okay with the idea of kids taking breaks as needed. Droujkova has noticed that in most groups, there are one or two kids do something else, while the rest do the main activity. (The non-participants still absorb a surprising amount, she adds.)

Pushback has come primarily from two very different (and usually opposing) camps. One is the “let kids be kids” cohort, which worries that legitimizing the idea of involving toddlers with algebra and calculus will tempt Tiger Mom types to push their kids into formal abstractions in these subjects at ever younger ages, even though that would completely miss the point. Other critics fall into the “back to basics” camp, which contends that all this play will prevent kids from becoming fluid in traditional calculation skills.


Extranjeros en la industria mexicana

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973 empresas extranjeras se establecen en GTO; 47% en León …

archivo.unionguanajuato.mx/…/973-empresas-extranjeras-se-establecen-en-gto-47-en…

25 nov. 2013 – En Guanajuato hay 973 empresas extranjeras establecidas, de las cuales 460 se ubican en León, esto significa el 47.2% del total. De acuerdo …

Las 10 empresas extranjeras que más invirtieron … – Union Guanajuato

archivo.unionguanajuato.mx/…/las-10-empresas-extranjeras-que-mas-invirtieron-en-e…

4 may. 2015 – La Secretaría de Desarrollo Económico Sustentable del Estado de Guanajuato dio a conocer cuáles son las 10 empresas extranjeras que han …

Aumentan 78% nuevas inversiones extranjeras en Guanajuato | El …

http://www.elfinanciero.com.mx/…/aumentan-78-nuevas-inversiones-extranjeras-en-guanaj…

22 nov. 2016 – Pirelli, una de las empresas extranjeras que ha invertido en Guanajuato. [Archivo]. Durante el tercer trimestre de 2016, el flujo de nuevas …

Aterrizarán 70 empresas en Guanajuato | El Economista

eleconomista.com.mx/estados/2015/01/20/aterrizaran-70-empresas-guanajuato

20 ene. 2015 – León, Gto. En el primer semestre del año, el gobierno de Guanajuato anunciará la llegada de 70 empresas extranjeras, que representan una …

Empleos De Empresa Extranjera Guanajuato – Mitula Empleo

https://empleo.mitula.mx/empleo/empresa-extranjera-guanajuato

31 ofertas de empleo de empresa extranjera guanajuato, todas las ofertas de trabajo

banner mapade empresa extranjera guanajuatoempresa extranjera guanajuato en …


Languages – Idiomas

Learn One Of These 7 Languages To Boost Your Career Prospects

Only speaking one language might be holding you back in numerous aspects of your working life. Whether you’re hoping to climb further up the ladder in your current role or seeking fresh opportunities abroad, being bilingual will give you a major advantage over your monolingual colleagues (and rivals!).

Fluency in one of these seven languages will give you multiple occupational benefits:

Mandarin Chinese

 

Mandarin’s global influence has been spreading for some time. Thanks to the continuous, rapid growth of China’s economy — second only to the US in size — Mandarin is deemed the second-most important language in global business behind English.

Chinese is also one of the most sought-after foreign languages among English language employers, and is often considered particularly difficult for native English speakers to learn. Therefore, proficiency in Mandarin is a stand-out asset that is bound to catch the eye of a potential employer.

Although English has maintained a strong influence in Southeast Asia, China is the dominant trading partner in the region. Thus, there is an increasing need for Mandarin speakers, particularly within the tourism and education fields. English and Mandarin are likely to co-exist in this part of the world, so those who speak both will be in demand.

German

 

For anyone who wants to work in Europe, investing time to learn German could pay dividends: Germany has the largest economy in the EU, and it is the official language in several central European nations. In total, there are approximately 130 million people who speak it worldwide.

German companies maintain a reputation as hallmarks of quality, regularly finding themselves at or near the top of their respective industries (think Allianz Worldwide, Siemens, Deutsche Bank Group and BMW).

We Forum’s Power Language Index ranks German third in the world in terms of the economic opportunities that it presents to its speakers, while job site Adzuna found it to be the most lucrative foreign language for a British-based worker to know.

Learn German with Babbel.

Spanish

 

Geographically speaking, Spanish offers far greater advantages than most other languages for traveling and communicating internationally.

With more than 400 million native speakers, there are large parts of the world where being able to provide a Spanish-speaking service is a major asset. It is the majority language in twenty-one countries, and across those nations there is a combined population of over 500 million.

More specifically, Spanish is the official language in booming South American economies like Paraguay and Ecuador. The language can prove crucial for anyone who lives or hopes to make a living in the US, where the Hispanic population is expected to double in size to around 70 million by the middle of this century.

Learn Spanish with Babbel.

Portuguese

 

The demand for Portuguese speakers has increased through Brazil’s steadily developing economy — a British Council report predicts its GDP will overtake France’s and the UK’s by 2020. Brazilian culture has received plenty of global attention in recent years too, thanks to the 2014 World Cup and 2016 Olympic games. Going forward, however, it will be the nation’s language rather than its sporting legacy which will better serve its citizens.

As the second-most spoken language in Latin America with approximately 215 million speakers around the world, it is also said to be the fastest growing one in Europe.

A number of African countries, including South Africa, Zambia, Namibia, Senegal and the Democratic Republic of Congo, teach it in schools, while UNESCO says it has the greatest potential of any international language for growth in Africa.

As foreign businesses continue tapping into Brazil’s growing markets and vice versa, the newly opening trade routes will continue to create increased demand for translators and interpreters.

Learn Portuguese with Babbel.

Japanese

For anybody working in or wanting to go into the fields of science or technology, knowing Japanese can open up a plethora of opportunities. It was recently dubbed “the language of robotics” due to Japan’s notable progress in developing and integrating robots into their workforce.

There are approximately 125 million Japanese speakers, and, while it does not offer the same broad travel advantages as languages like Spanish (it’s the world’s most geographically concentrated language), Japan is the world’s third largest economy and highly regarded for technological innovation — knowing the language offers opportunities to work with many exciting companies.

French

Although the number of French speakers is currently declining in Europe, the language is thriving in other parts of the world, including Africa, where some of its fastest growing economies recognize it as their official language. The African continent’s rising population could boost global French speaking numbers to over 700 million by 2050.

French is a powerhouse in international diplomacy, where both the United Nations and World Trade Organization depend on it as an official language, and it scores second-best in the world in terms of advantages for travelers who speak it. Travel, tourism and hospitality grant widespread employment prospects to French speakers, not least because of France’s highly regarded wine and food culture.

Learn French with Babbel.

Arabic

Arabic boasts around 300 million speakers worldwide, and is the communication gateway to the Middle East where many have made a fortune in energy, construction and real estate. A number of countries who recognize Arabic as their official language are economic powerhouses who make billions annually doing business with countries like the United States and the United Kingdom.

Learning Arabic may present more challenges to the average native English speaker compared to those more closely related Indo-European languages, but having a level of competency in this language will distinguish your CV from many others in the pile.

The highest growth in internet use last year also occurred in the Middle East, so for those who market online (and who doesn’t these days?), being able to translate and deliver digital services to the Arabic-speaking world means tapping into profitable markets where there is a significantly high concentration of consumer spending power.

Ready to give your career a language boost?

Let’s get started!

 

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Y además—https://www.babbel.com/


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“Desea UD donar?” “SI, ACEPTO.”

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“El Primer Francès y la Primer Francesa”

¿Què fue lo primero que hicieron el primer francès y la primer francesa?

Respuesta:

Coming soon…!

“El Primer Francès y la Primer Francesa”   *   La historia parodiada
http://www.locoxelcine.com/2012/01/30/oss-117-la-parodia-del-james-bond-frances/


Human body – Cuerpo humano

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La parte troglodita de tu yo interno

¿Por qué se tiene la fuerte impresión de que parte de la humanidad no quisiera unirse al avance, al progreso, al bienestar?  ¿Será verdad que todavía existen áreas remotas en donde se rigen socialmente por pactos auto-represores del intelecto y el conocimiento?

QUESTIONS – PREGUNTAS 

  • Qué es el parasitismo social?
    Qué es al parasitismo intelectual?
    Que es el acondicionamiento del imperialismo?
    Que es el subconsciente autodestructivo ?
    Cómo se acondiciona el inconsciente colectivo?
    Existe algo en el ADN que ponga a la inteligencia en ‘pausa’…?
  • Será cierto que lo que le quemaron a Cuauhtemoc no fueron únicamente los meñiques…?

Cultura de aprendizaje

Cómo cultivar una cultura de aprendizaje en su empresa

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Si la cultura de aprendizaje brinda muchos beneficios ¿Por qué sólo 31% de empresas la tiene?
Un lugar de trabajo en donde el aprendizaje es una forma valiosa de vida, el conocimiento es compartido, y el desempeño mejora continuamente – a nivel individual y empresarial – es la visión que impulsa a las empresas a establecer y expandir una cultura de aprendizaje. Las empresas se vuelven más competitivas, ágiles, y comprometidas cuando el conocimiento es compartido constantemente y libremente.
Sin embargo, a pesar de los beneficios obvios, solo el 31 por ciento de las empresas tienen una cultura de aprendizaje bien desarrollada. Esto se debe al hecho que las compañías de alto rendimiento son más probables de tener una cultura de aprendizaje. Así que la correlación es evidente.

Un lugar de trabajo en donde el aprendizaje es una forma valiosa de vida, el conocimiento es compartido, y el desempeño mejora continuamente – a nivel individual y empresarial – es la visión que impulsa a las empresas a establecer y expandir una cultura de aprendizaje. 

Nuevas investigaciones realizadas por la asociación de desarrollo de talento (ATD) y el instituto para la productividad (i4pc) nos muestra que las culturas robustas de aprendizaje son características distintivas de una empresa que consistentemente produce los mejore resultados empresariales. – empresas que lideran los mercados mundiales en ingresos, crecimiento, rentabilidad, presencia en el mercado, y satisfacción de clientes.
 
Entrando en la cultura de aprendizaje
 
Mediante la vista al alto desempeño, ATD y i4pc han explorado las prácticas de desarrollo de talento que los líderes hoy en día aplican para impulsar culturas de aprendizaje vibrantes como Marriott International, SAP, Merck, y otras empresas exitosas.  La investigación identifica acciones específicas que estos líderes empresariales en compañías de alto rendimiento toman en apoyo a estas culturas, ve los papeles que juegan los empleados, y las contribuciones constructivas que pueden ser obtenidas del proceso efectivo de la gestión de talento.
Las características que define las culturas de aprendizaje pueden variar, pero los líderes del desarrollo de talento lo describen como rasgos esenciales alineados cercanamente con las estrategias de aprendizaje y empresariales, valores empresariales que afirman la importancia del aprendizaje, y una atmósfera en la cual el aprendizaje está tan arraigado que simplemente se vuelve “una forma de vida”. En tales empresas, la agilidad es evidente y el cambio no es solamente adoptado pero explotado, mientras que los empleados desarrollan un crecimiento profesional y buscan nuevas oportunidades para aprender y para compartir el conocimiento con sus colegas.

 

http://www.fundacionsofofa.cl/blog/como-cultivar-una-cultura-de-aprendizaje-en-su-empresa